Kashaya - English


-Cv-v > vIterative reduplication: the action is repeated a few timesadded to just a dozen or so verbs that can also occur in unreduplicated form; but many verbs require this reduplication (sometimes changing to Frequentative in the plural)
-CvCv-v > vFrequentative reduplication: the action is repeated in quick successionquite freely used, although there are some verbs that do not have a Frequentative form
-c1cv > vTerrestrial: the action takes place on the ground or floorwith a few verbs, the Terrestrial and Essive act as a pair; either one or the other must be presentPrefixed*hihkocgroup sit on groundTerrestrial*hihkocgroup sit on ground
-c2cv > vSemelfactive: usually means that the action is done once, but with verbs of motion can also mean "start" or "away"
*ca1-n-kinmother’s father, mother’s parent’s father, mother’s parent’s brother2.6.5.1Man4., grandmotherFirst person informal possessorta·tanʔ1.Poss.Infrml mother's fatherFirst person possessorca·sʼenʔ1.Poss mother's fatherSecond person possessormica·sʼ2.Poss mother's fatherThird person possessormiya·ca·sʼ3.Poss mother's fatherThird person reflexive possessormaca·sʼ3r.Poss mother's father
*ca3cáw1v-posone sit, be sitting; one nonlong object or one person or animal bent into a nonlong shape, be stationary in some specified location on the ground or floorqʰale sáma· qʰaʔbe cawthe rock sat by the treemuhtʰi doco·ṭíʔ cawthe rattlesnake was lying coiled upcayí·ceducontinue to sit downcayiʔcontinue to sitCompare*hcayicʼ 2startle*hihkocgroup sit on ground*hkaon all fours*hkaṭʼon all fours*hko4sit*hkoycrawl*šohko 1sit2vone nonlong object, or one person (assumed shape is immaterial), be in some specified location (on the ground or not is immaterial); be, remain, stay, live, dwell, abideʔa·petóʔna castay with my father!duwíʔcapʰṭʰe qali· cawgod abodes aboveMr. Tróuette toʔna ca... ʔi | ... šoko·du || ... hihkocʰmeʔ (to a few) | ... nohpʰomeʔ (to many) | ... ʔimeʔ (to many)(to one) stay at Mr. Trouette's!Synonym*hihkocgroup sit on ground*nohpʰo 1live in place*šoko·d1stay in place3vone person be in a state or condition; certain nonconcrete concepts be, including the dateku ʔacaʔ šihmi šá· caw... ʔiwone man was an expert shotbeṭʼbuyi caw iwa bimaciwhat is the date today ?sibóyi cawthe third of the monthSynonym*ṭʰaʔbabe*ʔi 1beCausative*cahqa3set, connect*cahqacʼput costume onLocativeʔaca·c šina· cawalliHuman Skull SittingPhrasal Verbdimo calive with spouse's familyqali· castay upReciprocal*camucʼsit withReflexive*cahqacʼput costume onSemelfactive*cahci1one sit down on groundSupraterrestrial*cuma1one sit off ground experience
ca-capref-instrwith the rear end, with a massive or bulky object, with a knifeCausative*cahkʰohqacatch with an objectDirectional*cahkʰohqacatch with an object*cakʼihwalamake cuts downwardDurative*caʔkʼoyadcut scattered objectsEssive*cahcelhmabe blocked by massive object*cahkolhmaloosened by sitting in*caʔcʼolh2wear hole by sitting*caʔyismarock in seat*ca·ṭʰešmabe wide-bodiedFrequentative*cacʼecacʼemake many fast cuts*cahcʰocahcʰocwear out with rear end*cahqacahqarub repeatedly with butt*cahṭacahṭamake noise with massive object*catucatucpress with rear to fill and make bulge*caʔkʰocaʔkʰorepeatedly bend to half squat*caʔkʼacaʔkʼawaddle*caʔlacaʔlamove around while sitting*caʔyicaʔyiwiggle around in seatInstrumentalcahwe·nmuʔliseesawIterative*cahcʰahcʰaccrumble by sitting on*cahcʰohcʰocwear out with rear end*cahkohkochair to move loosely when sat in*cahkʰahkʰastain with rear end*cahkʰuhkʰucrush by sitting on*cahluhlucut to pieces with knife*cahmuhmucsit on and break to pieces*cahpahpapat repeatedly with rear*cahpʰihpʰishred with knife, rear, or massive object*cahsihsimake into pieces with knife*cahsuhsumake into little pieces with knife*cahšahšadisarrange by sitting*cahtʰihtʰiccut to pieces wear hole by sitting*cahtʰohtʰocwear hole by sitting and squirming*cahṭahṭamake noise with massive object*caʔboʔbocut pieces off*caʔcʼeʔcʼetake nicks out of chair*caʔcʼoʔcʼocut to pieces with knife*caʔkʼaʔkʼacbe with legs far apart*caʔkʼiʔkʼiwhittle*caʔkʼoʔkʼocchip away with knife*caʔloʔlotangle with body*caʔsʼoʔsʼowrinkle up by sitting on*caʔṭiʔṭipeel*caʔwiʔwiquickly twist while sitting*caʔyoʔyocsit and rumple*caʔyuʔyuhurt by sittingPrefixed*cabo·lhollow out with rear end*cacesecure by sitting*cacobe crushing with rear end*cacʰa·grab hold tightly of massive object*cacʰi·ṭcut out*cacʼalmassive object separate but remain attached*cacʼecacʼemake many fast cuts*cacʼi·ṭmix by cutting*cacʼo·transform by sitting*cacʼo·mchop off*cacʼo·ṭcut off ends*cadahcʰishove aside with rear end*cadaʔdipush with rear*cadilbe unable to sit*caduw2peel in one piece*caduw1act on edge with rear end*cahcebe obstructed by something massive*cahcelhmabe blocked by massive object*cahci2intercept, head off*cahcʰaknock over backing up*cahcʰahcʰaccrumble by sitting on*cahcʰocahcʰocwear out with rear end*cahcʰohcʰocwear out with rear end*cahcʰotbe tired of sitting*cahkebe blocked by something in sitting*cahkilhcisit with thud*cahkohkochair to move loosely when sat in*cahkolhmaloosened by sitting in*cahkotʰciwear out seat of chair or pants*cahkʰahkʰastain with rear end*cahkʰescoot *cahkʰohqacatch with an object*cahkʰuhkʰucrush by sitting on*cahlabacrack apart*cahlalcut into pieces*cahlokʼmassive or bulky object to bend*cahlo·mdismember an animal*cahluhlucut to pieces with knife*cahlu·cspill out*cahmiykeep moving around in seat*cahmoyshift around*cahmuhmucsit on and break to pieces*cahpahpapat repeatedly with rear*cahpanhcompress with rear end or with body*cahpooverflow*cahpolhgush by sitting on*cahponpolocrear end swollen*cahpʰaqʼbreak interior with read end*cahpʰatʼciflop onto rear end*cahpʰihpʰishred with knife, rear, or massive object*cahpʰitʼcitear with knife, by sitting*cahpʰukʼutsink into something soft*cahqa1be used to sitting*cahqacahqarub repeatedly with butt*cahqʰaslide on rear*cahqʰaṭ2rip apart with knife*cahqʰaṭ1whittle*cahqʰolhleak*cahsa2push (sev.) backing up*cahsa1back up and bump into something in water*cahsakʼatfall hard and bounce on rear*cahsetʼmany to project*cahsihsimake into pieces with knife*cahsikʼitknock away or over something with rear*cahsimextinguish by sitting*cahsitslice*cahsokʼotspurt by sitting*cahsommess up with rear*cahsoqsit on mat mat, cushion*cahsotsit on mat mat, cushion*cahsuhsumake into little pieces with knife*cahsutmake into little pieces with knife*cahšahšadisarrange by sitting*cahšanbe springy when sitting springy*cahtaytouch with rear*cahtenhflatten by sitting*cahtontolorub by sitting*cahtošciskin rear end*cahtʰihtʰiccut to pieces wear hole by sitting*cahtʰohtʰocwear hole by sitting and squirming*cahṭacahṭamake noise with massive object*cahṭahṭamake noise with massive object*cahṭanṭalawear out by sitting*cahṭonṭolobody get sore*cahṭʰatake out from with knife*cahṭʰespread out at end*cahṭʰinhsit on to straighten out lumps*cahwatʼsquash with rear end*cahwaṭʰfatten*cahwe·nrock sitting*cahwistick butt into something soft*cahwitselect seat*cahye·liquid stop running*cahyolmix with round object spread with rear end*cakanstick out*caka·šmassive object project*cake·šmassive object project*cake·ṭwith knife to take off corner or edge*cakištighten in seat of pants*caki·mcicatch by sitting on*caku·ṭcut off several*cakʰu·lfeel rough on rear end*cakʼalpush with rear end to open slightly*cakʼihwalamake cuts downward*cakʼi·scratch by sitting*cakʼi·šsqueak from being sat upon*cakʼo·lwear depression into by sitting on*cali·tspread lot of little papers with rear end*cama1collect water*cama2twine, weave*camhmicget used to sitting*canachide behind*cana·block*cana·mattack, ambush*cane·cblame get an armful*capabe overgrown*capa·šcomplete (task)*cape·lsmear around with rear end*capo·šget blister on buttocks*capʰo·be splashing while sitting*capʰu·scatter by shooting*capʼilfeel slick to rear end*caqolstroke with rear end*caqʰalbrush with rear end*caqʰa·2get cut on rump*caqʰa·1cut with knife*caqʰa·ṭbe comfortable*caqʰoṭcut off several at roots*caqʼa·sscratch and streak*caqʼa·ṭscrape with knife*casaknock off with rear*case·lclean rear end*casisilfeel irritation by sitting*casi·ṭscatter with knife*casu·ldrop before ripe because of broken taboo*casʼa·lsqueeze out liquid by sitting*casʼiyfold with massive object; with knife*caši·mscatter by sitting*catucatucpress with rear to fill and make bulge*catʼasit on (dress)*catʼatbe bothered by sitting on dress you are wearing*catʼe·lsmear with rear end*catʼulsquash by sitting on*caṭalbe flared*caṭiṭi·mastretch across*caṭo·lmake depression with rear end*caṭʰe·lcut off rotten spot*caṭʰopeel with knife*caṭʼamdisturb (nest) by sitting on*caṭʼanbreak open sore on rear end*caṭʼa·sit on and break (or keep still) lance (boil)*caṭʼemtire of sitting*caṭʼo·get sore from sitting on rear end peel with knife*caṭʼo·sremove covering so liquid oozes out*caṭʼurear end sink into*caṭʼulcisink into with rear*caṭʼunsit on something slimy*cawispin while sitting*cayemove*cayirub rear end on corner*caykucwhittle down*cayukʼutsit down into*caʔbasplit with with knife*caʔbalhcimassive object be turning*caʔbolhknock over by sitting down*caʔboʔbocut pieces off*caʔcʼaflexible object stiffen with rear end*caʔcʼabacut in half with knife*caʔcʼamhbe stiff, starched*caʔcʼanhstick by sitting*caʔcʼetcut off edge sit on edge of chair*caʔcʼeʔcʼetake nicks out of chair*caʔcʼolh2wear hole by sitting*caʔcʼolh1sit down hard*caʔcʼondetach by sitting*caʔcʼotcut pieces off edge*caʔcʼoʔcʼocut to pieces with knife*caʔdi1push backing up*caʔdi2get splinter by falling down*caʔkʰocaʔkʰorepeatedly bend to half squat*caʔkʰošbend at middle*caʔkʼacrack*caʔkʼacaʔkʼawaddle*caʔkʼayʔciget butt caught in crack*caʔkʼaʔkʼacbe with legs far apart*caʔkʼiṭcut off with knife*caʔkʼiʔkʼiwhittle*caʔkʼobump elbow*caʔkʼolhbump and overturn*caʔkʼonhcover with large object; rear end*caʔkʼoyadcut scattered objects*caʔkʼoʔkʼocchip away with knife*caʔkʼufinish cutting*caʔlacaʔlamove around while sitting*caʔlawʔcimove around in chair *caʔloʔlotangle with body*caʔluwrap with rear end*caʔpʼanhblock opening*caʔqʼacrelax*caʔqʼoʔdido well with rear end*caʔsʼaṭmake mark by sitting on something rough*caʔsʼibe pieces by cutting slice*caʔsʼomash with rear endcaʔsʼowrinkled by sitting*caʔsʼoʔsʼowrinkle up by sitting on*caʔtʼafeel with rear end*caʔtʼestick to rear end*caʔtʼekeledistort by sitting on*caʔtʼelnot sit enough*caʔtʼemstrike*caʔtʼenhsit*caʔtʼentʼelecrumple with rear end*caʔtʼunhconstrict with massive object; with knife*caʔṭimstretch across*caʔṭimstretch across*caʔṭiʔṭipeel*caʔṭusit on edge*caʔṭʼahold between massive*caʔṭʼašjoin together*caʔṭʼaṭcrack with rear end*caʔṭʼaṭcrack with rear end*caʔṭʼawʔducinjure severely by sitting*caʔṭʼeʔṭʼesit on and flatten*caʔṭʼolhmake slapping noise by bumping*caʔṭʼubutrear sink into water*caʔwiʔwiquickly twist while sitting*caʔyastart to sit down and get up*caʔya·qrecognize by sitting*caʔyicut strips *caʔyicaʔyiwiggle around in seat*caʔyismarock in seatcaʔyowrinkled*caʔyoʔyocsit and rumple*caʔyuʔyuhurt by sitting*ca·sqʰacwear smooth cut with knife*ca·sʼlucget slick from wear*ca·šlucget slick from wear*ca·ṭʰešmabe wide-bodiedca·ṭʰešṭʰešewide-bodied*hayukʼutthrow pickReciprocalcahwe·nmucʼrock, swing rocking (chair) seesawReflexivecahwe·nmuʔliseesawSemelfactive*cahcʰahcʰaccrumble by sitting on*cahkotʰciwear out seat of chair or pants*cahmuhmucsit on and break to pieces*cahponpolocrear end swollen*cahpʰatʼciflop onto rear end*cahpʰitʼcitear with knife, by sitting*cahtʰihtʰiccut to pieces wear hole by sitting*cahtʰohtʰocwear hole by sitting and squirming*caki·mcicatch by sitting on*catucatucpress with rear to fill and make bulge*caṭʼulcisink into with rear*caʔbalhcimassive object be turning*caʔkʼayʔciget butt caught in crack*caʔkʼaʔkʼacbe with legs far apart*caʔkʼoʔkʼocchip away with knife*caʔlawʔcimove around in chair *caʔyoʔyocsit and rumpleTemplate CvCvca·kʰeškʰeše flared at bottomca·ṭʰešṭʰešewide-bodied
cabacʼolcabácʼoladvin the back of the house, behind the house6.5.1.1House8.6.1.1Backʔahcahouse room of house containerbacʼo·back-lALL
cabahlawcabáhlawnsplinter, sliver, or other wood fragmentcabáhla· mito miʔdiyyou've got a splinter in your toe6.6.3.2Wood8.1.6.2Piecebahlawwood?
*cabahliccabáhliʔPlural of*caʔbalhcimassive object be turning
*caba·ccabaʔ´vbreak apart by sitting on*caʔbasplit with with knife
*cabola·tadcabolá·taduPlural of*cabo·lhollow out with rear end
*cabo·lcabolʔ´vhollow out with rear endCompare*caṭo·lmake depression with rear endPlural*cabola·tadca-with rear end*bo·lmake hole
*cacecacéwvsecure something in place by sitting on it; "grab" with the rear end; sit on (a towel) so that it cannot slip offcacé· cumawe· ma mil cumatʰma· tolyou are sitting holding the chair downPlural*cacetca-with rear end*cegrab
*cacehlimcacéhlimʔPlural of*cahcelhmabe blocked by massive object
*cacetcacéʔPlural of*cacesecure by sitting
*cacitcacíʔPlural of*cahci2intercept, head off
*cacocacówvbe crushing with the rear endPlural*cacotca-with rear end*co1be crushing
*cacotcacóʔPlural of*cacobe crushing with rear end
*cacʰat1cacʰáʔPlural of*cahcʰaknock over backing up
*cacʰat2cacʰáʔPlural of*cacʰa·grab hold tightly of massive object
*cacʰa·cacʰaw´vgrab hold tightly of a massive objectPlural*cacʰat2ca-with rear end*cʰa·1grab
*cacʰiṭcacʰíʔPlural of*cacʰi·ṭcut out
*cacʰi·ṭcacʰiʔ´vcut out with a knifeqahca wi haʔal muṭʰu· cacʰi·ṭicut out that knot with a knife!Plural*cacʰiṭca-with rear end*cʰi·ṭ1take out