Kashaya - English


-iivSingular Imperative: spoken directly to one person who will perform the actionmay be followed by the Responsive
=iiDialectal Variant of=liLOC
-ibicibicv > v1Directional: up; neither toward or from here, because what is moving does not become separated from what it has been attached to2Directional: away (with verbs of motion)3Inceptive: begin a voluntary actCompoundmobi·ceduwimotorDirectional*bade·bicmove away with mouth*bane·bicbe delayed*basa·bicmove (sev.) away with mouth*baʔsʼawi·bicsing up*be·biclift up (long) carry (long) up, away*bide·bicpick up (bunch) carry (bunch) up, away*bisa·biclift up (sev. long) carry (sev. long) away*cikʰe·biclift with handle*cisa·bicpick up, lead (sev.) carry, lead (sev.) up, away*codo·bicpick up (in container) carry up, away (in container) pick up (supported underneath) carry up, away (supported underneath) ride horse up, away*cošoti·bicraise hand*co·bic2rise in container*co·bic1(water) rise up*cukʰe·biccarry with handle*cʰeʔeti·bicdip out*cʰide·bicpick up, lead (one) carry, lead (one) up, away*dade·biclift up (heavy) carry (heavy) away*dasa·biclift up (sev. heavy) carry (sev. heavy) away*daʔcʰa·bicdo push-up*dibiclift up (nonlong) carry (nonlong) up, away pitch song higher*dihcibiclift up (nonlong)*dihtibiclift up (sev. nonlong) carry (sev. nonlong) up, away*dikʼo·yibictip on side by self*doʔkʼoyi·bicpry up with fingers*do·bicraise hand up*dude·bicmove up with finger strike (person)*dukʰe·biclift*dusa·bicmove (sev.) up with finger*hayomi·bicsev. leave*ha·tibicspeak up*hikʰe·bicsit up; increase*hitʼe·bicprosper*hotʼo·tibicraise head*htibicraise footmobi·ceduwimotor*mobo·kʼibicswell up from heat*moqʰo·tibicraise knee*moʔboli·bicthrow*moʔkʼoyi·bicwarp up in sun*mo·bicrun off*neti·bic(fire) blaze up*paʔcʰa·bicstand up unsteadily*pisa·biclift (sev.) with side of long object*piṭitibicstrike ground with side of stick*pʰade·bicmove up with end of long object*pʰaduwi·bicpoke and hit edge*pʰe·bicstart to carry person on back*pʰide·biclift with side of long object*pʰude·bicmove away by blowing*qabo·kʼibicbe bulging with cheeks*qasa·biclift (sev.) with teeth suck (pain) out*qa·bic(long) move upward*sibo·bicgroup float up, away group start to float*side·bicone float up, away one start to float*šaʔcʰa·bicpush up on hands*šiba·tibicgrow strong*šoko·bicsit up*šoʔkʼoyi·bicpull one end*šude·biclift, pull (one) up lead, pull (one) up, away*šukʰe·biclift by pulling*šusa·bicpick up, lead (sev.) lead, pull (sev.) up, away*tibicraise leg*tʼe·tibicone stand up*ṭʰili·bicstoop raising butt*ṭʼayi·bicpour down and out; tip over*ʔbaci·bicbear (fruit)Durativemobi·ceduwimotorInceptive*bane·bicbe delayed*ca·bicfly up*cʼowi·bicappear suddenly*qaṭʼu·sibic(face) become narrow*šiweyi·bicbe newInstrumentalqʰale pʰiyehtibiʔliwedgeʔahca dusʼuli·biʔlilean-toNominal Phraseqʰale pʰiyehtibiʔliwedgePrefixed*dikʼo·yibictip on side by self*doʔkʼoyi·bicpry up with fingers*mobo·kʼibicswell up from heat*moʔkʼoyi·bicwarp up in sun*piṭitibicstrike ground with side of stick*qabo·kʼibicbe bulging with cheeks*šoʔkʼoyi·bicpull one end
-icʼ1icʼPlural Agent of-idDUR
-icʼ2icʼv > vReflexive: the agent acts on itself, for itself, or on something along with itselfDirectional*qʼa·macʼbequeath*šaqacʼwear (clothes)Essive*qʼa·macʼbequeathNominal Phrasehuʔuy pihceliʔeyelashesPrefixed*dahyalicʼhave responsibilities responsibilitiesReflexive*dahyalicʼhave responsibilities responsibilities*duqʰalicʼpaint one's face*duyemacʼcontrol oneself*qʼa·macʼbequeath*šaqacʼwear (clothes)
-ididvDurativeSynonym-ad1DUR-cidDUR-edDUR-medDUR-ucedDUR-wad2DURPlural Agent-icʼ1following /c/
-ilDirectional **
-imimvFormal Imperative: employed in prayers and invocations, and in ordinary situations by the characters in myths; previous generations used this suffix more in their daily life, but this now sounds old-fashioned
-inin1vSame-Subject Simultaneous: the action denoted by the verb is simultaneous with that of the main verb, and they have the same Agent; "while, whenever, because, by"2PROGadded only to imperfective verbsDerivativemeninand
-innainnavAural evidential: the speaker heard the sounds of the reported action, but did not see itCompare-aFACT-doHSY-qa1CIRC-yaVIS
-insʼinsʼvSuppositional: variously rendered by "I suppose, probably, may, might, could"Compare-basʼidmust bein texts, often attached to the Assertive
-inʔnainʔnavPotential: seems to be concerned with a capability of doing an act which may or may not be carried through
-išvOptative: expresses the hope or desire of the speaker; the desire is that the speaker himself do that action unless the Causative immediately precedeswith /tí·qa/ means "I wish"; with Causative can be added to the Assertive
-iwacʼiwacʼPlural Agent of-wad1DIST-uwad1DIST*
-iyiyvIndirect Imperative: said to someone who will not perform the action, so the agent will be either first or third person
-iyicʼiyicʼPlural Agent of-ucedDUR
iyowalFree Variant ofyowalsame as before former, aforementioned
iyowal menFree Variant ofyowal menas before
-iʔbaiʔbavConditional: "would", "could"often linked to a condition that may be expressed explicitly in a subordinate clause containing /-pʰi/ or /-pʰila/, or the condition may only be implied